Volume 7 - Issue 4

October 2019

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A Sample Design in Programming with Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model

Zafer Güney
Pages: 1-14

The aim of this study is to introduce the four-component instructional design (4C/ID) model in teaching loops for programming by using the model, which is defined in programming instruction, with the principles of the model for teaching technical skills and to discuss the differences in instructional planning and to discuss in the process of design of loops. It is important to integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes in the transfer of knowledge learned in schools to our business life and culture, and to transfer behaviors to new tasks. In the software development process, the planning, design, development and implementation of the programming courses with appropriate instructional design models and strategies should be ensured in order to teach and learn the subjects of the different courses in an effective and meaningful way. At this time, four-component instructional design (4C/ID) model are used for learning complex technical skills and presented in programming to apply loops for teaching skills in software development for programmers, designers and educators. At the end of study, the relationships between ID models and their use in programming process are indicated, and suggestions for developers, programmers and designers are discussed for the future research and applications in programming.

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Adult Learners’ Participation In A Blended Learning Environment: A Case Study On Imposed Pace Learning

Hale Ilgaz
Pages: 15-29

Distance education provides individuals with extensive learning opportunities. Learners of all ages enjoy the opportunity to become well-equipped individuals as many educational institutions offer flexible and blended programs that can aid in personal and professional development. The current study focuses on adult learners and aims to investigate their opinions of an imposed-pace program design and this design’s reflection on their participation. This study employed a qualitative research design and interviewed 30 individuals and found that mandatory attendance increased participants’ interaction with the content by eliminating other responsibilities and obligations as excuses for non-participation. Additional factors affecting participation included instructors’ voices in a narrated online course and integration activities that allowed for self-evaluation during the course. Virtual and face-to-face interactions were also found to be important factors. Session timing, communication abilities, technical issues, and effective communication were the other emergent findings in this study.

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Design and Evaluation of Worked Examples for Teaching and Learning Introductory Programming at Tertiary Level

Mariam Nainan Balamuralithara Balakrishnan
Pages: 30-44

Studying worked examples has been found to be effective for learning problem solving, especially among students. However, students need to actively process example content to benefit from it and content must be structured in a manner that facilities knowledge construction. This study investigated the use of worked examples for teaching and learning programming. Programming involves problem analysis and solution generation. But students tend to jump to solution generation without adequately analysing the problem. Consequently, the current study designed and implemented a new worked example design that emphasised problem analysis and utilised highlighting through web technology to encourage active processing of example content. This study also evaluated the new design in a quasi-experiment in a university course in Malaysia, compared to subgoal labelled worked examples, and conducted over three sessions. Posttest performance was analysed using independent samples t-test and frequency distributions. The results suggested that worked examples based on the new design were more effective than subgoal labelled worked examples, with statistically significant difference in performance, and medium effect size for the first session. For the second and third sessions, performance was marginally better, with learning in both groups possibly limited by the complexity of the worked examples and assessments.

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Effect of Web-Based Intelligence Tutoring System on Students’ Achievement and Motivation

Pages: 45-59

This study aims to investigate the effect of Web‐Based Intelligence Tutoring System on Students’ Achievement and Motivation in the computer introduction course. For this purpose, an intelligent tutoring system called Office Master was designed and developed that can be reached on the internet. With this software, subjects are taught to students, are presented in audio, visual, and written form. A specific sequence of subjects was determined in the system. The system includes intelligence features for intelligent tutoring systems. Thanks to these features, when students start the lesson, their preliminary information about the subject is checked, and they can follow the subject from the required unit. In addition, students’ logs are recorded in the system. A quasi‐experimental design with the pretest‐posttest control group was used as a quantitative research design to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. It was observed that the achievement of the students was significantly increased as a result of the application, and it was also concluded that the students were very motivated with the system when the results of the motivation survey were examined. It is recommended that similar systems should be applied in other courses so that the courses taught in universities will be more effective and efficient.

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Examination of Preservice Teachers’ Lifelong Learning Trends by Online Information Searching Strategies

Pages: 60-80

This study aimed to examine the relationship between the lifelong learning trends of preservice teachers and the online information searching strategies used by them. Accordingly, this is a quantitative study using the correlational research design. The study group was composed of 317 preservice teachers studied at Sakarya University. The Lifelong Learning Trends Scale and the Online Information Searching Strategy Inventory were utilized. It was concluded in the study that there was a statistically significant relationship among Lifelong Learning Trends Scale and all factors of the Online Information Searching Strategy Inventory. The stepwise regression model which was created to determine to what extend all the online information searching strategies predict lifelong learning trends was statistically significant. It was observed that preservice teachers’ lifelong learning trends were statistically and significantly predicted by problem-solving strategies in the first place which were followed by disorientation strategies and purposeful thinking strategies, respectively.

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Investigate the Reflective Evaluations of Prospective Teacher on STEM Education, Based on Their Experiences with Planning and Implementing STEM Activities

Ali Bozkurt Melike Özyurt
Pages: 81-97

This study intends to investigate the reflective evaluations of prospective teacher on STEM education, based on their experiences with planning and implementing STEM activities. The research’s study group, designed qualitatively, is composed of 18 candidate teachers who graduated from the department of mathematics, 16 candidate teachers who graduated from the department of physics, 9 candidate teachers who graduated from the department of physics engineering and one teacher candidate from the department of textile engineering. STEM education programs carried out within the scope of the research lasted for 12 weeks, with four hours per week. Prior to the training programs, it was determined whether the teacher candidates had previous knowledge of STEM. After six weeks of training, study groups were formed which were composed of teacher candidates from different branches. Each team performed, with students, what they thought was an STEM activity in the classrooms. A structured interview was undertaken with the teams following completion of the activities. The content analysis method was used to analyze the data garnered from the interviews. The defining criteria for the STEM activities chosen within the scope of the study were their applicability, their compliance with STEM disciplines, their teaching potential and the features of the learning outcome (product). Teachers mentioned a few problems they encountered during the activities. It was found that the participants considered incorporating STEM activities into their teaching routine but that some had concerns about the preparation stage and the implementation process. In this context, it was established that the most remarkable concern regarding the preparation stage was the supply of materials and the need for preliminary preparation for the activities; while among the most frequently voiced concerns concerning the implementation stage were the time-consuming nature of the activities, efficient implementation of the STEM activities by the students, lack of cooperation between students, lack of active participation on the part of students and a lack of materials.

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Investigation of Preservice Teachers' Theory Use Through Course Video

Seval Deniz KILIÇ Ercan Masal
Pages: 98-109

The use of theory which has been described as an efficient tool to build a bridge between theory and practice has recently become one of the subject matters which the mathematics educators pay attention. The main purpose of this study which examines the preservice mathematics teachers’ levels and nature of use of theory is to enable preservice teachers to enrich their practical knowledge with theory. As a result of this case study which consisted of 20 preservice mathematics teachers and adopted qualitative research methods, it was found that the preservice teachers’ habits of use of theory accumulated to the level of description and in addition to this, theory use mostly accumulated to the third level. That is, the preservice teachers have a great tendency to explain the current situation. At the end of the study, it was suggested that the preservice teachers should be provided rich learning environments which promote the use of theory and are enriched with technology and they should be guided appropriately to increase the candidates’ quality and level of theory use.

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Teachers’ use of Web 2.0: Education Bag Project Experiences

Adile Aşkım Kurt Fırat Sarsar Ozan Filiz Esra Telli Derya Orhan Göksun Salih Bardakçı
Pages: 110-125

The main purpose of this research is to determine teachers' views on the project process within the scope of using Web 2.0 tools in education. In accordance with this purpose, participant teachers were asked to express their training expectations before the training and training views after the training. Additionally, teachers were asked which Web 2.0 tools they liked the most. Within the scope of the project entitled “Education Bag: The Use of Web 2.0 Tools in Education” the research where teachers' views about the process were taken was conducted in accordance with the qualitative research method. 148 teachers from 21 different cities participated to this TÜBİTAK project. The online structured form prepared for the purpose of the research was shared with the participating teachers. This form included three questions as (i) teachers’ expectations from training, (ii) training efficiency and (iii) which Web 2.0 tools they like during the training process. Data was analysed with content analysis. Data obtained from the content analysis were discussed under two sub-titles as expectations related to education and post-education views. Participant teachers’ training expectations were gathered under four different themes. These themes are teacher, course, education and student. Participant teachers’ post-training views were also shaped under four themes. These themes are training, content, teacher and instructors. Majority of the participant teachers liked online test preparation tool Quizizz most. Second most liked Web 2.0 tool is Metaverse that can develop augmented reality applications. Edmodo, Google Forms, Edpuzzle and Nearpod are among other liked educational Web 2.0 tools.

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The Effect Of Digital Teaching Material (Public Service Ad) Development Process On Preservice Teachers’ Creative Thinking Skills

Pages: 126-144

This research was aimed at finding answers to the question how preservice teachers use creative thinking skills in a digital teaching material development process. The mixed method using both quantitative and qualitative methods was preferred in the research. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Figural Form A was applied to the preservice teachers at the beginning and the end of the research. The SPSS software was used for analyzing the quantitative data. According to the pretest and posttest results of TTCT Figural Form A, the preservice teachers had significantly higher scores in the fluency, originality and elaboration factors in the posttest but no significant difference was observed in favor of the posttest scores in the abstractness of titles and resistance to premature closure factors. Interviews with the preservice teachers, observations and video records constitute qualitative data sources. It was aimed with the qualitative data triangulation to examine the effect of digital teaching material development process on preservice teachers’ creative thinking skills. Descriptive analysis and content analysis methods were used for analyzing the qualitative data. The results showed that the preservice teachers had positive opinions of the course in general, and they reported that they had fun and spent productive time as they did something practical.

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The Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Classroom Management in Primary Schools

Mehmet Ali Hamedoğlu
Pages: 145-154

The purpose of this research is to determine the access level of the primary school teachers who worked in Sakarya city center in 2018-2019 academic year to today’s information and communication technologies and in which level they used these technologies in classroom management activities such as communication, research, giving homework and using as a course material. With this research, it was aimed to identify in which level today’s information and communication technologies are used in classroom management activities like the arrangement of learning environment, the management of teaching and the management of parent-student relationship. The teachers are going to notice that they can use the information and communication technologies which they have not used before or used in different environments in classroom management, as well, with this research. As a result of the research, it was found out that almost all of the teachers had internet access and used the internet at the most for literature review, communication and giving homework while the channels such as What

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Effects of Cloud Computing Tools, Study Type and Task Difficulty on Cognitive Load and Performance

Pages: 155-167

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of using cloud computing technologies, study type and task difficulty on cognitive load and students’ performance. The research was conducted as 2x2x2 complex mixed design. The two experiment groups are the first factor of design. In the first experiment group students used non collaborative cognitive tools (NCCT), in the second group students used collaborative cloud computing (CCCT) for learning tasks. Second and third factors of the research as repeated measures are study type (individual – group) and task difficulty (easy – difficult). During the experiment process four different types of tasks were given to students. These tasks were individual and easy task (1), individual and difficult task (2), in group and easy task (3) and in group and difficult task (4). The depended variables of the research are cognitive load, performance and instructional efficiency scores. The experiment group consists of 57 females and 57 males totally 114 university students. 55 students used NCCT and 59 students used CCCT for learning tasks. Three factors mixed design ANOVA were used to analyze the gathered data. Analyzes showed that cloud computing improves learning performance and instructional efficiency while does not affect cognitive load. According to the results especially for the difficult tasks using cloud computing is suggested to improve students’ collaboration and performance.

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